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Eur J Biochem. 1997 Mar 1;244(2):265-78.

Tubulin post-translational modifications--enzymes and their mechanisms of action.

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Department of Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.


This review describes the enzymes responsible for the post-translational modifications of tubulin, including detyrosination/tyrosination, acetylation/deacetylation, phosphorylation, polyglutamylation, polyglycylation and the generation of non-tyrosinatable alpha-tubulin. Tubulin tyrosine-ligase, which reattaches tyrosine to detyrosinated tubulin, has been extensively characterized and its gene sequenced. Enzymes such as tubulin-specific carboxypeptidase and alpha-tubulin acetyltransferase, required, respectively, for detyrosination and acetylation of tubulin, have yet to be purified to homogeneity and examined in defined systems. This has produced some conflicting results, especially for the carboxypeptidase. The phosphorylation of tubulin by several different types of kinases has been studied in detail but drawing conclusions is difficult because many of these enzymes modify proteins other than their actual substrates, an especially pertinent consideration for in vitro experiments. Tubulin phosphorylation in cultured neuronal cells has proven to be the best model for evaluation of kinase effects on tubulin/microtubule function. There is little information on the enzymes required for polyglutamylation, polyglycylation, and production of non-tyrosinatable tubulin, but the available data permit interesting speculation of a mechanistic nature. Clearly, to achieve a full appreciation of tubulin post-translational changes the responsible enzymes must be characterized. Knowing when the enzymes are active in cells, if soluble or polymerized tubulin is the preferred substrate and the amino acid residues modified by each enzyme are all important. Moreover, acquisition of purified enzymes will lead to cloning and sequencing of their genes. With this information, one can manipulate cell genomes in order to either modify key enzymes or change their relative amounts, and perhaps reveal the physiological significance of tubulin post-translational modifications.

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