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J Magn Reson Imaging. 1997 Mar-Apr;7(2):339-46.

Combined analysis of spatial and velocity displacement artifacts in phase contrast measurements of complex flows.

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Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.


MR phase contrast (PC) velocity imaging is a promising tool for quantifying blood flow velocity in vivo. PC velocity imaging is, however, susceptible to artifacts that result from the displacement of spins during the finite duration pulse sequences. Such displacement artifacts can lead to errors in velocity measurements, especially in the presence of oblique and accelerating flows, which are common throughout the cardiovascular system. By tracking particles (representing spins) through a computed velocity field, and assuming that spatial and velocity encodings occur at discrete times during the pulse sequence, we simulate the separate and combined effects of oblique and acceleration artifacts on PC velocity images. We demonstrate, both by simulation and MR measurement, the errors associated with such artifacts in PC velocity measurements in a representative flow geometry. Using example particle trajectories, we provide a fluid dynamic basis for characteristic phase-velocity image distortions that can arise when imaging complex, physiologically relevant flows.

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