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Yeast. 1997 Mar 15;13(3):199-213.

Multiple copies of PBS2, MHP1 or LRE1 produce glucanase resistance and other cell wall effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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American Cyanamid, Agricultural Products Research Division, Princeton, NJ 08543-0400, USA.


Five sequences were isolated by selection for multiple copy plasmids that conferred resistance to laminarinase, an enzyme that specifically degrades cell wall beta(1-3) glucan linkages. Strains carrying three of these plasmids showed alterations in cell wall glucan labelling. One of these plasmids carried PBS2, a previously identified, non-essential gene which produces a variety of phenotypes and encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase analogue (Boguslawski and Polazzi, 1987). Cells carrying PBS2 at multiple copy show a small decrease in cell wall beta(1-6) glucans. Measurements of beta(1-3) glucan synthase activity in multi-copy PBS2 cells showed an approximate 30-45% increase in enzyme specific activity while a pbs2 delta disruption strain showed a decrease in glucan synthase activity of approximately 45% relative to control. A pbs2 delta disruption strain was laminarinase super-sensitive and supersensitive to K1 killer toxin while a strain carrying PBS2 at multiple copy was resistant to killer toxin. A second plasmid carried a portion of the MHP1 gene which has been reported to encode a microtubule-interacting protein (Irminger-Finger et al., 1996). The MHP1 gene product is a predicted 1398 amino acid protein and only approximately 80% of the amino portion of this protein is required for laminarinase resistance. Cells carrying the amino portion of MHP1 at multiple copy show a decrease in high molecular weight cell wall beta(1-6) glucans and were killer toxin resistant while a disruption strain was viable and killer toxin super-sensitive. Cells carrying this plasmid showed decreased levels of high molecular weight beta(1-6) glucans and increased glucan synthase activity. The laminarinase resistance conferred by the third plasmid mapped to the previously uncharacterized YCL051W open reading frame and this gene was therefore named LRE1 (laminarinase resistance). The LRE1 gene encodes a non-essential 604 amino acid hydrophilic protein. Unexpectedly, cells carrying LRE1 at multiple copy show no alteration in cell wall glucans or glucan synthase activity. Subcloning experiments demonstrated that the production of these cell wall effects requires the presence of both LRE1 and YCL052C (PBN1), a second open reading frame present on the original plasmid. Cells carrying multiple copies of PBN1 alone show no significant alterations in cell wall glucans or glucan synthase activity, indicating that these effects require the presence of multiple copies of both genes.

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