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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997 Apr;41(4):823-6.

Adaptive resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced by aminoglycosides and killing kinetics in a rabbit endocarditis model.

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Laboratoire d'Antibiologie Clinique et Experimentale, Faculte de Medecine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Nantes, France. XIONG@AFP76.HUMC.EDU


Adaptive resistance following the first exposure to aminoglycosides is a recently described in vitro phenomenon in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other aerobic gram-negative bacilli. We investigated the in vivo relevance of adaptive resistance in P. aeruginosa following a single dose of amikacin in the experimental rabbit endocarditis model. Rabbits with P. aeruginosa endocarditis received either no therapy (control) or a single intravenous (i.v.) dose of amikacin (80 mg/kg of body weight) at 24 h postinfection, after which they were sacrificed at 5, 8, 12, 16, or 24 h postdose. Excised aortic vegetations were subsequently exposed ex vivo to amikacin at 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 times the MIC for 90 min. In vivo adaptive resistance was identified when amikacin-induced pseudomonal killing within excised aortic vegetations was less in animals receiving single-dose amikacin in vivo than in vegetations from control animals not receiving amikacin in vivo. Maximal adaptive resistance occurred between 8 and 16 h after the in vivo amikacin dose, with complete refractoriness to ex vivo killing by amikacin seen at 12 h postdose. By 24 h postdose, bacteria within excised vegetations had partially recovered their initial amikacin susceptibility. In a parallel treatment study, we demonstrated that amikacin given once daily (but not twice daily) at a total dose of 80 mg/kg i.v. for 1-day treatment significantly reduced pseudomonal densities within aortic vegetations versus those in untreated controls. When therapy was continued for 3 days with the same total daily dose (80 mg/kg/day), amikacin given once or twice daily significantly reduced intravegetation pseudomonal densities versus those in controls. However, amikacin given once daily was still more effective than the twice-daily regimen. These data confirm the induction of aminoglycoside adaptive resistance in vivo and further support the advantages of once-daily aminoglycoside dosing regimens in the treatment of serious pseudomonal infections.

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