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J Anim Sci. 1997 Mar;75(3):868-79.

The effect of grain source and grain processing on performance of feedlot cattle: a review.

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Oklahoma Agricultural Experiment Station, Animal Science Department, Stillwater 74078, USA.


Effects of grain species and grain processing method on DMI, rate and efficiency of gain, and feeding value for cattle fed high concentrate diets were appraised by statistically compiling results from 605 comparisons from feeding trials published in North American journals and experiment station bulletins since 1974. Metabolizable energy (ME) values for each grain and processing method were calculated by quadratic procedures from DMI and animal performance. Averaged across processing methods, ME values for corn, milo, and wheat grain (3.40, 3.22, and 3.46 Mcal/kg DM) fell within 9% of ME estimates from NRC (1996) for beef cattle. In contrast, ME values for barley and oats grain (3.55 and 3.46 Mcal/kg DM) were 24% and 17% greater than NRC (1996) estimates. Compared with the dry rolled forms, high moisture corn and milo resulted in lower ADG and DMI. Compared with dry rolling, either steam rolling or flaking of corn, milo, and wheat decreased DMI without decreasing ADG and improved feed efficiency by 10, 15, and 10%, respectively. Compared with dry rolled grain, steam flaking increased (P < .05) body weight-adjusted ME of corn and milo grain by 15 and 21%, respectively; body weight-adjusted ME for whole corn was 9% greater (P < .05) than for rolled corn grain. Steam flaking was surprisingly effective (13%) at increasing (P < .05) the body weight-adjusted ME of wheat, but steam flaking failed to increase the ME of barley and oats. Higher moisture content of high-moisture corn decreased dry matter intake without depressing ADG and improved efficiency and increased ME of the grain. Compared with steam flakes of moderate thinness, processing milo or barley to a very thin flake tended to reduce ADG and failed to improve feed efficiency. The ideal roughage source and roughage moisture content for maximum ME and ADG varied with grain processing method. Feeding corn silage rather than alfalfa and wet rather than dry roughage depressed (P < .01) ADG of cattle and reduced (P < .01) body weight-adjusted ME of cattle fed high-moisture corn grain but tended to increase both with steam-flaked corn or wheat.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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