Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Genes Cells. 1996 Jun;1(6):543-53.

The 12/23 rule is enforced at the cleavage step of V(D)J recombination in vivo.

Author information

1
Cell and Molecular Biology Program, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

V(D)J recombination is initiated by the introduction of double-stranded breaks (DSB) adjacent to recombination signal sequences (RSS). Each RSS contains a conserved heptamer and a conserved nonamer element separated by a 12 or 23 nucleotide spacer. In vivo, efficient recombination requires one RSS of each spacer length, although it has been unclear whether this '12/23 rule' regulates cleavage, joining, or both.

RESULTS:

We describe a novel system that permits semiquantitative detection of DSB at RSS derived from V(D)J recombination substrates transfected into cultured cells. This approach provides a powerful new tool for analysis of the cleavage and joining steps of V(D)J recombination in vivo. In this study, substrates containing either a consensus 12/23 RSS pair or various deviations from the consensus were used to investigate the requirements for cleavage. The results show that both a 12-spacer and a 23-spacer RSS are required for efficient cleavage. Truncated RAG-1 and RAG-2 proteins, while capable of cleaving at isolated RSS in cell-free systems, also require a 12/23 RSS pair for efficient cleavage in vivo.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results suggest that the 12/23 rule is enforced at or prior to cleavage and support a synapsis model for V(D)J recombination. Detection of rare cleavage events in substrates containing a single RSS or a pair of RSS with the same spacer length provide evidence for an inefficient, single RSS cleavage pathway that may contribute to aberrant V(D)J rearrangements in vivo.

PMID:
9078384
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center