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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Feb 24;231(3):628-34.

Genomic organization, sequence, and chromosomal localization of the human helix-loop-helix Id1 gene.

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Department of Cancer Biology and Molecular Cytogenetics Resource, Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California 94720, USA.


The helix-loop-helix protein Id-1 regulates growth and differentiation in many mammalian cells. In human fibroblasts, Id1 and Id1', a putative splicing variant, are cell cycle regulated, essential for proliferation, repressed by senescence, and overexpressed by some tumor cells. To better understand Id1, we determined the complete sequence, transcriptional start, and localization of the human Id1 gene. Human Id1 has two exons (426 bp and 42 bp), separated by an intron (239 bp). Id1' results from failure to splice the intron, which encodes 7 amino acids prior to a stop codon. Thus, Id1 and Id1' proteins differ only at the extreme C-terminus. Id1 transcription initiated 96 bp upstream of the initiation AUG; 2 kb of upstream sequence stimulated transcription of a reporter gene. Human Id1 maps to chromosome 20 at q11, very close to the centromere but outside the amplicons frequently found in human cancers.

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