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J Reprod Med. 1997 Feb;42(2):65-70.

Gamete intrafallopian transfer. Does smoking play a role?

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, USA.



To investigate the effects of active and passive cigarette smoking on the outcome of gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT).


A retrospective analysis of 98 patients who had laparoscopic GIFT was performed. Data were retrieved concerning age, diagnosis, amount of human menopausal gonadotropins (hMG) used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH), and number of oocytes retrieved and transferred. A detailed smoking history, if any, of patients and household members was obtained from chart review and an additional telephone survey. Pregnancy rates and outcome in active and passive smokers were compared to those of non-smokers.


No difference was observed among active smokers (n = 19), passive smokers (n = 13) or nonsmokers (n = 66) regarding diagnosis, age percentage of mature oocytes retrieved or number of oocytes transferred during GIFT. However, active, but nor passive, smokers consumed a higher amount of hMG for COH as compared to nonsmokers. More important, pregnancy and live birth rates for active smokers (15.8% and 10.5%, respectively) were significantly lower than those for passive smokers (46.2% and 23.1%) and nonsmokers (45.5% and 33.3%). No difference, however, was noted between the latter two groups.


Our results show that active, but not passive, smoking has a negative impact on GIFT pregnancy rates and outcomes. It is important to counsel patients against cigarette smoking prior to GIFT, but whether smoking cessation will improve the outcome needs further study.

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