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J Neurooncol. 1997 Feb;31(3):233-54.

Transforming growth factor beta as a potential tumor progression factor among hyperdiploid glioblastoma cultures: evidence for the role of platelet-derived growth factor.

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Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt School of Medicine, USA.


Among early-passage, near-diploid gliomas in vitro, transforming growth factor type beta (TGF beta) has been previously shown to be an autocrine growth inhibitor. In contrast, hyperdiploid (> or = 57 chromosomes/metaphase) glioblastoma multiforme (HD-GM) cultures were autocrinely stimulated by the TGF beta. The mechanism of this 'conversion' from autocrine inhibitor to mitogen is not understood; previous studies have suggested that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) might be modulated by TGF beta. The similar expression of TGF beta types 1-3, PDGF-AA; -BB, as well as the PDGF receptor alpha and beta subunits (a/beta PDGFR) between biopsies of the HD-GM and near-diploid, TGF beta-inhibited glioblastomas (GM) by immunohistochemistry did not explain the discrepancy in their regulatory responses. Flow cytometry demonstrated that TGF beta's mitogenic effect was selective for the aneuploid subpopulations of two of three selected HD-GM cultures, while the diploid cells were inhibited. Among the HD-GM, TGF beta 1 induced the RNA of PDGF-A, c-sis and TGF beta 1. The amount of PDGF-AA secreted following TGF beta treatment was sufficient to stimulate the proliferation of a HD-GM culture. Antibodies against PDGF-AA, -BB, -AB, alpha PDGFR and/or beta PDGFR subunits effectively neutralized TGF beta's induction of DNA synthesis among the HD-GM cell lines, indicating that PDGF served as the principal mediator of TGF beta's growth stimulatory effect. By comparison, TGF beta induced only the RNA of PDGF-A and TGF beta 1 among the near-diploid GM, c-sis was not expressed at all. However, the amount of PDGF-A which was secreted in response to TGF beta 1 was insufficient to prevent TGF beta's arrest of the near-diploid cultures in G1 phase. Thus, the emergence of hyperdiploidy was associated with qualitative and quantitative differences in TGF beta's modulation of PDGF-A and c-sis, which provided a mechanism by which the aneuploid glioma cells might achieve 'clonal dominance'. We hypothesize that TGF beta may serve as an autocrine promoter of GM progression by providing a selective advantage to the hyperdiploid subpopulation through the loss of a tumor suppressor gene which mediates TGF beta's inhibitory effect.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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