Send to

Choose Destination
Yale J Biol Med. 1996 Jan-Feb;69(1):69-74.

The biological relevance of gastric neuroendocrine tumors.

Author information

Department of Pathology, University of Kiel, Germany.


Gastric neuroendocrine tumors were originally thought to have a low incidence (three percent). Since endoscopic diagnostic procedures have become clinical routine, they are now found more frequently (relative incidence up to 41 percent). In recent years, classifications have been developed that attempt to consider the biological relevance of these tumors. Four types of gastric neuroendocrine tumor may be distinguished: Type 1 gastric neuroendocrine tumor is most common. It is associated with chronic atrophic fundus gastritis, hypergastrinemia and often with pernicious anemia. Usually it is multicentric and smaller than one cm, does not produce any symptoms and has an excellent prognosis. Type 2 gastric neuroendocrine tumor is second in frequency. It has no association with other diseases, is solitary and has no predilection for a particular localization. It may be larger than 1 cm, produce a carcinoid syndrome or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and have a metastasis rate of up to 30 percent. Type 3 gastric neuroendocrine tumor is rare and always associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type I. It occurs as multiple lesions in the gastric body fundus and has a lower metastatic rate than type 2 gastric neuroendocrine tumor. Type 4 gastric neuroendocrine tumor corresponds to a small-cell carcinoma.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center