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Am J Pathol. 1997 Feb;150(2):617-30.

Synchronous synthesis of alpha- and beta-chemokines by cells of diverse lineage in the central nervous system of mice with relapses of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH 44195, USA.


Chemokines are secreted peptides that exhibit selective chemoattractant properties for target leukocytes. Two subfamilies, alpha- and beta-chemokines, have been described, based on structural, genetic, and functional considerations. In acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), chemokines are up-regulated systemically and in central nervous system (CNS) tissues at disease onset. Functional significance of this expression was supported by other studies; intervention with an antichemokine antibody abrogated passive transfer of EAE, and chemokines expressed in brains of transgenic mice recruited appropriate leukocyte populations into the CNS compartment. Chemokine expression in the more relevant circumstance of chronic EAE has not been addressed. We monitored the time course and cellular sources of chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kd, KC, and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted cytokine) in CNS and peripheral tissues during spontaneous relapses of chronic EAE. We found coordinate chemokine up-regulation in brain and spinal cord during clinical relapse, with expression confined to CNS tissues. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-gamma-inducible protein of 10 kd, and KC were synthesized by astrocytic cells, whereas macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted cytokine were elaborated by infiltrating leukocytes. The results demonstrate stringent regulation of multiple chemokines in vivo during a complex organ-specific autoimmune disease. We propose that chemokine expression links T-cell antigen recognition and activation to subsequent CNS inflammatory pathology in chronic relapsing EAE.

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