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Cancer Lett. 1997 Jan 15;112(1):93-101.

New protein and PCR markers RAK for diagnosis, prognosis and surgery guidance for breast cancer.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Nebraska Eppley Cancer Center, Omaha, USA.


Breast cancer antigens RAK-p120, -p42, -p25 were detected in 100% of breast cancer cases tested (71 cases). Only 10% of adjacent tissue cases tested positive for all three cancer antigens, and 17.5% of the cases tested positive for two antigens only. Eighty-five percent of histologically normal breast tissue samples, isolated either from breast cancer patients or patients with advanced fibrocystic disease, tested RAK-negative, with the exception of low expression of p25, observed in some patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with HIV-1 gp 41-derived primers revealed cancer-associated DNA fragments of similar size (140 bp) as in HIV-1 genome. Fifty-four percent of cancer adjacent tissues, and 50% of malignancy-free breast tissue samples, tested PCR-negative. It is suggested that genetic predisposition to cancer may be associated with the presence of RAK genes, while expression of RAK antigens marks an already ongoing process of malignant changes.

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