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Praxis (Bern 1994). 1996 Dec 17;85(51-52):1641-6.

[Steps to integration or the fight with the Hydra "dualism"].

[Article in German]

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Medizinische Abteilung, Inselspital Bern.


Dualism in medicine (making a sharp distinction between somatic and psychosocial features) is not based on human nature. Rather, it is the result of the development and training of the observer. A physician must be brought to realize this. For behind his every medical consideration and action lies a medical theory. Clinical examples are given, where the physician's lack of awareness of the limitations of his concept led to serious results for the patient. The author describes his own path through training and experience from dualism to an integrative biopsychosocial concept. Based on his own pain research, he shows how results depend on the concept followed. He insists that from the very beginning medical studies must be founded on a biopsychosocial model.

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