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Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1997 Feb;7(1):67-74.

MEKKs, GCKs, MLKs, PAKs, TAKs, and tpls: upstream regulators of the c-Jun amino-terminal kinases?

Author information

1
Program in Molecular Signal Transduction Division of Basic Sciences National Jewish Center for Immunology and Respiratory Medicine 1400 Jackson Street Denver Colorado 80206 USA.

Abstract

Regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members - which include the extracellular response kinases (ERKs), p38/HOG1, and the c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs) - plays a central role in mediating the effects of diverse stimuli encompassing cytokines, hormones, growth factors and stresses such as osmotic imbalance, heat shock, inhibition of protein synthesis and irradiation. A rapidly increasing number of kinases that activate the JNK pathways has been described recently, including the MAPK/ERK kinase kinases, p21-activated kinases, germinal center kinase, mixed lineage kinases, tumor progression locus 2, and TGF-beta-activated kinase. Thus, regulation of the JNK pathway provides an interesting example of how many different stimuli can converge into regulating pathways critical for the determination of cell fate.

PMID:
9024636
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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