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Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1996 Dec;28(12):1393-403.

The effects of in vivo and in vitro non-enzymatic glycosylation and glycoxidation on physico-chemical properties of haemoglobin in control and diabetic patients.

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Laboratory of Haemostasis and Haemostatic Disorders, Medical University of L odź, Poland.


The erythrocyte deformability, which is related to erythrocyte internal viscosity, was suggested to depend upon the physico-chemical properties of haemoglobin. In the present study we employed ESR spectroscopy on order to explore further the extent to which the in vivo or in vitro glycation and/or glycoxidation might affect haemoglobin structure on conformation. We revealed that under both in vivo and in vitro conditions the attachment of glucose induced a mobilization of thiol groups in the selected domains of haemoglobin molecules ( the increased h+1/h0 parameter of maleimide spin label, MSL; 0.277 +/- 0.021 in diabetics vs 0.338 +/- 0.017 in controls, n = 12, P < 0.0001). The relative rotational correlation time (tau c) of two spin labels, TEMPONE and TEMPAMINE, respectively, in erythrocyte insides (5.22 +/- 0.42 in diabetics, n = 21 vs 4.79 +/- 0.38, n = 16 in controls, P < 0.005) and in the solutions of in vitro glycated haemoglobin, were increased. Neither oxidation nor crosslinking of thiol groups was evidenced in glycated and/or oxidized haemoglobin. In addition, erythrocyte deformability was found to be reduced in type 2 diabetic patients (6.71 +/- 1.08, n = 28 vs 7.31 +/- 0.96, n = 21, P < 0.015). In conclusion, these observations suggest that: the attachment of glucose to haemoglobin might have decreased the mobility of the Lys-adjacent Cys residues, thus leading to the increased h+1/h0 parameter of MSL. Such structural changes in haemoglobin owing to non-enzymatic glycosylation may contribute to the increased viscosity of haemoglobin solutions (r = 0.497, P < 0.0035) and the enhanced internal viscosity of diabetic erythrocytes (r = 0.503, P < 0.003). We argue that such changes in haemoglobin, and consequently in red blood cells, might contribute to the handicapped oxygen release under tissue hypoxia in the diabetic state.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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