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J Biol Chem. 1997 Feb 7;272(6):3806-12.

Regulation of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase GRK5 by protein kinase C.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.


G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) specifically recognize and phosphorylate the hormone-occupied form of numerous G protein-coupled receptors, ultimately resulting in termination of receptor signaling. While little is presently known about the regulation of GRK function, recent studies suggest a role for protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase in membrane association and activation of the kinase. To assess a potential general role for PKC in regulating GRK function, we characterized the ability of PKC to phosphorylate GRK5, a recently identified member of the GRK family. We demonstrate that GRK5 can be rapidly and stoichiometrically phosphorylated by PKC in vitro. Intact cell studies reveal that GRK5 is also phosphorylated when transiently expressed in COS-1 cells following treatment with the PKC activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. In vitro analysis reveals two major sites of PKC phosphorylation within the C-terminal 26 amino acids of GRK5. GRK5 phosphorylation by PKC dramatically reduces its ability to phosphorylate both receptor (light-activated rhodopsin) and non-receptor (casein and phosvitin) substrates. Kinetic analysis reveals an approximately 5-fold increased Km and approximately 3-fold decreased Vmax for rhodopsin, with no change in the Km for ATP. The reduced affinity of PKC-phosphorylated GRK5 for rhodopsin was also evident in a decreased ability to bind to rhodopsin-containing membranes, while direct binding of GRK5 to phospholipids appeared unaltered. These results suggest that PKC might play an important role in modulating the ability of GRK5 to regulate receptor signaling and that GRK phosphorylation by PKC may serve as a disparate mechanism for regulating GRK activity.

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