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Physical medicine modalities and trigger point injections in the management of temporomandibular disorders and assessing treatment outcome.


Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are principally musculoskeletal, orthopedic, and neurologic in nature. The use of trigger point injections and physical medicine modalities has become commonplace in the management of TMDs. These modalities have a long and successful history in the management of similar disorders in other areas of the body, and it is only natural that they would be included in the management of TMD as well.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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