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Am J Pathol. 1997 Jan;150(1):235-46.

Migration inhibitory factor expression in experimentally induced endotoxemia.

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Picower Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York 10021, USA.


Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an important constituent of the host response to stress and infection and is the first mediator that has been identified to be released from immune cells upon stimulation with glucocorticoids. MIF also has been shown to be secreted from the anterior pituitary gland, monocytes/macrophages, and T cells activated by various proinflammatory stimuli. Once released, MIF acts to counter-regulate the inhibitory effect of glucocorticoids on inflammatory cytokine production. To characterize more precisely the role of MIF in the host response to infection, we undertook a systematic analysis of MIF expression in various organs of the rat after endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) administration. MIF protein and mRNA were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively. MIF was found to be expressed constitutively in organs such as the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, adrenal gland, and skin. Significant quantities of MIF protein were detected preformed in various cell types and appeared to be released as a consequence of endotoxemia. In virtually all tissues examined, the loss of MIF protein 6 hours after lipopolysaccharide administration was accompanied by the induction of MIF mRNA and, at 24 hours, by the restoration of immunoreactive, intracellular MIF. The constitutive production of MIF by several cell and tissue types together with its rapid release from intracellular pools distinguishes MIF from other cytokines or hormonal mediators and significantly expands the physiological role of this unique counter-regulator of glucocorticoid action.

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