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Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 1996 Nov-Dec;11(6):756-9.

Smoking and implant failure--benefits of a smoking cessation protocol.

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Department of Adult Dental Care, Glasgow Dental Hospital and School, Scotland.


This prospective study reviews the early outcomes of 223 consecutive Brånemark implants placed in 78 patients by one operator. Patients were divided into three groups: nonsmokers (NS); smokers who followed a smoking cessation protocol (SQ); and smokers who continued to smoke (SNQ). There was a statistically significant difference between failure rates in the NS and SNQ groups (P < .005) and between the SQ and SNQ groups (P < .05), but none between the NS and SQ groups. It is concluded that the smoking cessation protocol described shows considerable promise in improving success rates for osseointegration in smokers who follow it.

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