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IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1996 Jun;43(6):589-99.

Measurement of volumetric flow with no angle correction using multiplanar pulsed Doppler ultrasound.

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Institute of Experimental Clinical Research, Skejby Sygehus, Aarhus, Denmark.


In this paper we show that by scanning at points on the surface of a sphere that the normal angle correction used in pulsed Doppler flow measurements is no longer necessary. Thus, it is possible to measure three-dimensional (3-D) flow using multiplanar ultrasound even though we only get one-dimensional (1-D) velocity information from pulsed Doppler ultrasound. The technique handles the three basic problems in flow measurements using ultrasound Doppler: The variations of the cross-sectional area, the time dependent changes in the velocity field, and the dependency of the angle of insonation. The technique is tested in a flow phantom using different angles of insonation to validate the angle independence of this new technique. Using six different angles of insonation in the range 0 degree to 69 degrees with flowrates in the range of 0-170 ml/s a linear dependence was found to be: measured (color Doppler) = 0.98 real flow (reference) + 1.36 ml/s, with a 95% confidence interval of +/- 13.9 ml/s.

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