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FEBS Lett. 1996 Dec 16;399(3):193-7.

Removal of substrate inhibition in a lactate dehydrogenase from human muscle by a single residue change.

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Molecular Recognition Centre and Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University Walk, Bristol, UK.


High concentrations of ketoacid substrates inhibit most natural hydroxyacid dehydrogenases due to the formation of an abortive enzyme-NAD+-ketoacid complex. It was postulated that this substrate inhibition could be eliminated from lactate dehydrogenases if the rate of NAD+ dissociation could be increased. An analysis of the crystal structure of mammalian LDHs showed that the amide of the nicotinamide cofactor formed a water-bridged hydrogen bond to S163. The LDH of Plasmodium falciparum is not inhibited by its substrate and, uniquely, in this enzyme the serine is replaced by a leucine. In the S163L mutant of human LDH-M4 pyruvate inhibition is, indeed, abolished and the enzyme retains high activity. However, the major contribution to this effect comes from a weakening of the interaction of pyruvate with the enzyme-coenzyme complex.

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