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Mol Reprod Dev. 1997 Jan;46(1):104-8.

Role of c-Src in cellular events associated with colony-stimulating factor-1-induced spreading in osteoclasts.

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1
Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Abstract

We and others have observed that in response to treatment with Colony Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) neonatal rat osteoclasts demonstrate rapid cytoplasmic spreading. The receptor for CSF-1, c-Fms, is expressed in osteoclasts, possesses intrinsic tyrosine-kinase activity, and signals via rapid phosphorylation of selected proteins. It has been reported previously that c-Src becomes tyrosine phosphorylated following CSF-1 treatment of fibroblasts overexpressing c-Fms. We therefore examined the cellular events associated with CSF-1-induced spreading in osteoclasts and what role, if any, c-Src played in these processes. Confocal microscopic studies using phosphotyrosine (P-tyr) monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that CSF-1 induced a significant dose- and time-dependent increase in P-tyr labeling of neonatal rat osteoclasts. Phalloidin staining was consistent with partial to complete disassembly of the actin attachment ring with redistribution of actin to the spreading cytoplasmic edge of the cell. Quantitation of cellular F-actin using NBD-phallicidin confirmed a decrease in polymerized actin following exposure to CSF-1. In contrast, CSF-1 failed to induce any cytoplasmic spreading in osteoclasts isolated from mice with targeted disruption of the src gene. Further, in src- osteoclasts no well defined attachment ring could be identified. To investigate cell-signaling events associated with osteoclast spreading, detergent lysates were made from purified multinucleated osteoclast-like cells (OCLs) obtained by coculturing murine bone marrow and osteoblasts with calcitriol. Western blot analyses of lysates from control and CSF-1-treated normal cells indicated that several proteins were specifically phosphorylated in response to CSF-1, most notably proteins of 165, 60, and 85-90 kDa. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the 165 and 60 kDa proteins were, respectively, c-Fms and c-Src. The c-Src kinase activity was increased 2.9-fold following CSF-1 treatment. The 85-90 kDa protein is as yet unidentified. Since activated receptor tyrosine kinases may induce spreading in part by reducing phosphoinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding to actin-associated proteins, a monoclonal antibody to PIP2 was used to assess the nature of PIP2 binding proteins in OCLs. Proteins of 85-90 kDa, 43 kDa, and 30 kDa were consistently demonstrated to bind PIP2. Further, the PIP2 content of the 85-90 kDa protein appeared to decrease with CSF-1 treatment. Whether this protein represents the phosphoprotein of the same M.W. is unclear. We also examined the effect of CSF-1 on the PIP2 content of alpha-actinin. Alpha-actinin showed low-level PIP2 binding, which was demonstrable only after immuno-precipitation and did not change with CSF-1 treatment. However, CSF-1 did cause a significant decline in the phosphotyrosine content of alpha-actinin. In contrast, in src- OCLs, CSF-1 induced more prolonged phosphorylation of c-Fms, and the 85-90 kDa protein was markedly hypophosphorylated. Further, alpha-actinin did not dephosphorylate in src- cells. We conclude that CSF-1-induced osteoclast spreading is accompanied by rapid reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and phosphorylation of several cellular substrates, including c-Fms and c-Src. PIP2 binding to at least one protein appears to decrease with CSF-1 treatment, which may favor actin depolymerization. The reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of alpha-actinin could effect its ability to bind to actin. Thus c-Src may play an important role in these cellular events since in its absence, osteoclasts do not spread and signaling events downstream are altered. Whether these changes relate in part to the basal abnormalities in the cytoskeletal organization of src- osteoclasts remains to be determined.

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