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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1996 Jun;81(6):2061-8.

Abnormalities of insulin pulsatility and glucose oscillations during meals in obese noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients: effects of weight reduction.

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1
Department of Medicine, Monroe Community Hospital, Rochester, New York 14620, USA.

Abstract

Twenty-seven obese patients, including 8 with normal glucose tolerance, 10 with subclinical NIDDM, and 9 with overt noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), were studied before and after prolonged weight loss to assess the effects of the underlying defects of diabetes per se from those of obesity and chronic hyperglycemia on the regulation of pulsatile insulin secretion. Serial measurements of insulin secretion and plasma glucose were obtained during 3 standardized mixed meals consumed over 12 h. Insulin secretion rates were calculated by deconvoluting plasma C peptide levels using a mathematical model for C peptide clearance and kinetic parameters derived individually in each subject. Absolute (nadir to peak) and relative (fold increase above nadir) amplitudes of each insulin secretory pulse and glucose oscillation were calculated. Compared to the obese controls, the subclinical and overt NIDDM patients manifested the following abnormal responses: 1) decreased relative amplitudes of insulin pulses, 2) reduced frequency of glucose oscillations, 3) increased absolute amplitudes of glucose oscillations, 4) decreased temporal concomitance between peaks of insulin pulses and glucose oscillations, 5) reduced correlation between the relative amplitudes of glucose oscillations concomitant with insulin pulses, and 6) temporal disorganization of the insulin pulse profiles. These defects were more severe in the overt NIDDM patients, and weight loss only partially reversed these abnormalities in both NIDDM groups. These findings indicate that beta-cell responsiveness is reduced, and the regulation of insulin secretion is abnormal under physiological conditions in all patients with NIDDM, including those without clinical manifestations of the disease. These abnormalities are not completely normalized with weight loss, even in patients who achieve metabolic control comparable to that in obese controls. The results are consistent with the presence of an inherent beta-cell defect that contributes to secretory derangements in subclinical NIDDM patients. This abnormality precedes frank hyperglycemia and may ultimately contribute to the development of overt NIDDM.

PMID:
8964829
DOI:
10.1210/jcem.81.6.8964829
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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