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J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 1996 Sep;27(3):209-18.

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): evaluation of controlled PTSD research.

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  • 1Mental Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, USA.


The completed controlled PTSD research on eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is placed within the context of other methods used in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. A number of studies are presented that support EMDR as an empirically validated method. However, in several studies, clinical standards have not always been integrated with rigorous scientific methodology. The suggested standards include fidelity checks for the method being tested, the use of appropriate psychometrics, and assessment of co-morbidity factors. At the same time, because of common misconceptions about the method, a variety of problematic issues are discussed.

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