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J Prosthet Dent. 1996 Dec;76(6):592-6.

The relationship of smoking on peri-implant tissue: a retrospective study.

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University of Vienna, School of Dentistry, Austria.


The term "peri-implantitis" is used to describe the formation of deep mucosal pockets around dental implants, inflammation of the peri-implant mucosa, and increased resorption of peri-implant bone. It has been speculated that when left untreated, peri-implantitis can result in implant failure. This retrospective study examines a possible correlation between smoking and the appearance of peri-implantitis. The clinical and radiographic observations of 366 implants in 107 patients who smoke were compared with those of a group of 1000 implants in 314 nonsmoking patients. Despite the retrospective nature of this study, a comparison between the two groups was possible. The mean follow-up period, mean patient age, implant locations, and percentages of fixed partial dentures and overdentures were consistent in both groups. There was no significant difference in the mean maxillary and mandibular hygienic indices between the group of smokers and that of nonsmokers. However, the group of smokers showed a higher score in the bleeding index, the mean peri-implant pocket depth, the degree of peri-implant mucosal inflammation, and radiographically discernible bone resorption mesial and distal to the implant. In the maxilla of the smoking group, these observations were significantly higher than both the mandibular observations for smokers and the maxillary observations of the group of nonsmokers (p < 0.01). No differences between the two groups were observed in the mandible. Aside from the systemic effects of tobacco smoking on the human organism, local cofactors seem to be responsible for the higher incidence of peri-implantitis in smokers and have a particularly negative effect on the maxilla. These findings confirm that smokers treated with dental implants have a greater risk of development of peri-implantitis.

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