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Can J Anaesth. 1996 Dec;43(12):1203-10.

Epidural and intravenous bolus morphine for postoperative analgesia in infants.

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1
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, USA. cmh@u.washington.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To compare two doses of bolus epidural morphine with bolus iv morphine for postoperative pain after abdominal or genitourinary surgery in infants.

METHODS:

Eighteen infants were randomly assigned to bolus epidural morphine (0.025 mg.kg-1 or 0.050 mg.kg-1) or bolus iv morphine (0.050-0.150 mg.kg-1). Postoperative pain was assessed and analgesia provided, using a modified infant pain scale. Monitoring included continuous ECG, pulse oximetry, impedance and nasal thermistor pneumography. The CO2 response curves and serum morphine concentrations were measured postoperatively.

RESULTS:

Postoperative analgesia was provided within five minutes by all treatment methods. Epidural groups required fewer morphine doses (3.8 +/- 0.8 for low dose [LE], 3.5 +/- 0.8 for high dose epidural [HE] vs. 6.7 +/- 1.6 for iv, P < 0.05) and less total morphine (0.11 +/- 0.04 mg.kg-1 for LE, 0.16 +/- 0.04 for HE vs 0.67 +/- 0.34 for iv, P < 0.05) on POD1. Dose changes were necessary in all groups for satisfactory pain scores. Pruritus, apnoea, and haemoglobin desaturation occurred in all groups. CO2 response curve slopes, similar preoperatively (range 36-41 ml.min-1.mmHg ETCO2-1.kg-1) were generally depressed (range, 16-27 ml.min-1.mmHg ETCO2-1.kg-1) on POD1. Serum morphine concentrations, negligible in LE (< 2 ng.ml-1), were similar in the HE and iv groups (peak 8.5 +/- 12.5 and 8.6 +/- 2.4 ng.ml-1, respectively).

CONCLUSION:

Epidural and iv morphine provide infants effective postoperative analgesia, although side effects are common. Epidural morphine gives satisfactory analgesia with fewer doses (less total morphine); epidural morphine 0.025 mg.kg-1 is appropriate initially. Infants receiving epidural or iv morphine analgesia postoperatively need close observation in hospital with continuous pulse oximetry.

PMID:
8955967
DOI:
10.1007/BF03013425
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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