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Med Eng Phys. 1996 Dec;18(8):641-6.

Noninvasive method for measuring the electrical properties of deep tissues using an open-ended coaxial probe.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan.


A new noninvasive method of measuring the structure and the electrical properties of bilayered biological tissues was evaluated as a potentially useful diagnostic means for detecting changes in subcutaneous tissues. First, the input impedance of an open-ended coaxial probe radiating into a bilayered model was calculated using a full-wave method, the results showed that the evanescent higher order modes do not have a significant influence on the reflection coefficient of muscle layer surface. Then, it was clearly proven that the phase shift and the modulus of the reflection coefficient of muscle layer surface depending on the frequency are useful to estimate the thickness of fat layer and the electrical properties of muscle respectively. The experimental results showed an excellent agreement with the theoretical relationship between the phase shift and the thickness. The sensitivity of estimation of the electrical properties of muscle was shown to be not enough for differentiating between normal and diseased deep tissue because of noises from the experimental systems.

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