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J Card Fail. 1996 Dec;2(4 Suppl):S77-85.

SR Ca(2+)-ATPase/phospholamban in cardiomyocyte function.

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Department of Medicine and Pathophysiology, Osaka University School of Medicine, Japan.


Ca ATPase regulates intracellular Ca levels by pumping Ca into sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum (SER). Phospholamban was first identified as a phosphoprotein in cardiac myocytes. Functional properties of phospholamban by steady-state and presteady-state kinetic studies of Ca pump ATPase suggest that phospholamban functions as an inhibitory co-factor for cardiac Ca ATPase (SERCA 2). Protein kinase A-catalyzed phosphorylation of phospholamban results in the dissociation of phospholamban from the Ca ATPase, thus augmenting the ATPase activity. Phospholamban is found as a homo-pentamer, formed from subunits of 6080 Da in size. PKA-catalyzed and CAM kinase- catalyzed phosphorylation residues (Ser 16 and Thr 17) are located in the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, whereas the C-terminal 22 residues are extremely hydrophobic and are considered to be embedded in the SR membrane. At least three kinds of Ca ATPase have been found. SERCA 1 is expressed in fast-twitch skeletal muscle, while the SERCA 2 gene encodes two alternatively spliced products, SERCA 2a and 2b. SERCA 2a is expressed in cardiac and slow-twitch skeletal muscles; SERCA 2b in smooth muscle and non-muscle tissues. SERCA 3 is expressed in a broad variety of muscle and non-muscle tissues. In vitro expression systems revealed that the functional properties of Ca transport of SERCA 2 are identical to SERCA 1, but not SERCA 3. In particular, the Ca affinity for Ca transport of SERCA 1 or 2 is lowered by co-expression with phospholamban, whereas that of SERCA 3 is not. Identification of the interaction sites of phospholamban and SERCA 2 helps defining the molecular mode of interaction between the two proteins. Photoactivated cross-linking studies indicated that potential binding residues are located just downstream of the active ATPase site (Asp 351) of SERCA 2, but SERCA 3 is devoid of this sequence. If a chimeric Ca ATPase (CH2) is made from SERCA 2 and 3, in which the SERCA 3 region corresponding to the phospholamban-binding sequence of SERCA 2 is introduced into the remainder of the SERCA 2 molecule, then the interaction with phospholamban is lost. These results suggest that this region of SERCA 2 contains amino acids which are involved in the interaction with phospholamban. By site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids of this region, we were able to show that 6 residues, Lys-Asp-Asp-Lys-Pro-Val402, of SERCA 2 are functionally important for the interaction. When the chimera CH2 was mutated back to SERCA 2 type, mutated CH2 containing these 6 residues of SERCA 2 restored the interaction with phospholamban. Altogether, these 6 residues of SERCA 2 represent the interaction sites for phospholamban. Mutagenesis studies of phospholamban also demonstrated that the hydrophilic, cytoplasmic region of phospholamban contains a potential binding site for SERCA 2. We therefore conclude that the functional interaction between the two proteins occurs in the cytoplasmic region.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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