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Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1996 Nov;42(5):589-97.

Population pharmacokinetics of proguanil in patients with acute P. falciparum malaria after combined therapy with atovaquone.

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Glaxo Wellcome Research and Development, United Kingdom.


1. The pharmacokinetics of proguanil were evaluated in patients with acute P. falciparum malaria receiving concomitantly proguanil hydrochloride and atovaquone. The population consisted of 203 Blacks, 112 Orientals and 55 Malays; 274 males and 96 females. Of the 370 patients, 114 and 256 patients were classified as 'poor' and 'extensive' metabolizers of proguanil, respectively. Body weight and age ranged between 11-110 kg and 3-65 years, respectively. 2. A one compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination was fitted to proguanil plasma concentration-time profiles, using non-linear mixed effect modelling (NONMEM). 3. Oral clearance (CLo) showed a 0.785 power relationship with body weight and was 13% higher in Orientals than Blacks and Malays and 17% lower in 'poor' than 'extensive' metabolizers. According to the mean weight of each population, the final population estimates of CLo in Blacks, Orientals and Malays who are 'extensive' metabolizers were 54.0, 61.5 and 64.3 l h-1, respectively. Age, gender and dose had no significant effects on CLo. 4. Apparent volume of distribution (V/F) showed a 0.88 power relationship with body weight. The final population estimates were 562 and 1629 l in children (< or = 15 years) and patients aged > 15 years, respectively, who had a mean body weight of 22.6 and 54.8 kg, respectively. The effect of other covariates on V/F was not examined. 5. The final magnitudes of interpatient variability in CLo and V/F were relatively low at 22.5 and 17.0%, respectively. 6. Population pharmacokinetic parameter estimates in Black, Oriental and Malay patients with acute P. falciparum malaria are in good agreement with results of pharmacokinetic studies in healthy Caucasian volunteers. In view of the 30-50% residual variability in proguanil plasma concentrations, the slight effects of Orientals and 'poor' metabolizers on CLo are unlikely to be clinically significant. Hence, dose recommendation will be solely based on body weight.

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