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Scanning. 1996 Nov;18(8):562-6.

Three-dimensional laser scanning two-photon fluorescence confocal microscopy of polymer materials using a new, efficient upconverting fluorophore.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Buffalo 14260, USA.


Three-dimensional confocal imaging of polymer samples was achieved by the use of two-photon excited fluorescence in both positive and negative contrast modes. The fluorophore was a new and highly efficient two-photon induced upconverter, resulting in improved signal strength at low pumping power. Because of the relatively long wavelength of the excitation source (798 nm from a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser), this technique shows a larger penetration depth into the samples than provided by conventional single-photon fluorescence confocal microscopy. Single-photon and two-photon images of the same area of each sample show significant differences. The results suggest the possibility of using two-photon confocal microscopy, in conjunction with highly efficient fluorophores, as a tool to study the surface, interface, and fracture in material science applications.

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