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Infect Immun. 1996 Dec;64(12):5219-24.

Oral and rectal immunization of adult female volunteers with a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhi vaccine strain.

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Department of Gynecology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland.


An attenuated strain of Salmonella typhi delta(cya) delta(crp-cdt) delta(asd) expressing a gene encoding a hepatitis B virus core-pre-S protein was tested in female adult volunteers for its ability to elicit a systemic and a mucosal immune response. Specifically, our purpose was to evaluate the potential of such a vaccine strain to induce specific secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) at genital and rectal surfaces. Oral and rectal routes of immunization were compared: oral immunization induced seroconversion against the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in six out of seven volunteers, while after rectal immunization only one out of six volunteers seroconverted against LPS. To our disappointment, the latter volunteer was also the only one who seroconverted against the carried antigen (pre-S1), demonstrating the poor ability of this live vaccine to induce an immune response against the carried antigen. Anti-LPS sIgA was found in both the vaginal and cervical secretions of a volunteer who presented a strong seroconversion after oral immunization (16-fold increase in anti-LPS IgG). Smaller amounts of anti-LPS sIgA were found in the rectal secretions of one orally and one rectally immunized volunteer and in the saliva of three orally and one rectally immunized woman. Our data show for the first time that it is possible to induce specific sIgA in the genital and rectal tracts of women by using an S. typhi vaccine strain.

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