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J Clin Microbiol. 1996 Dec;34(12):2875-80.

Differential prevalence of hepatitis C virus subtypes in healthy blood donors, patients on maintenance hemodialysis, and patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in Surabaya, Indonesia.

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Tropical Disease Research Center, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.


Determination of the prevalence of liver disease caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) of various genotypes helps provide an understanding of the virulences of these genotypes. Differences in the prevalences of these genotypes are known to exist in the various geographical regions of the world. Hence, we performed seroepidemiological and molecular epidemiological analyses of HCV in Surabaya, Indonesia. The prevalences of anti-HCV antibodies were 2.3, 76.3 and 64.7% in healthy blood donors, patients on maintenance hemodialysis, and patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), respectively. HCV-2a was the most common (52%) among the HCV clones obtained from blood donors; this was followed by HCV-1b (15%), HCV-1a (7%), and HCV-1d (7%), a unique Indonesian subtype. The high prevalence of HCV-2a in blood donors was further supported by serotyping analysis that could discriminate HCV type 2 (HCV-2a and -2b) from HCV type 1 (HCV-1a, -1b, and -1d). HCV-1a, -1b, and -1d were strongly associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in blood donors, suggesting a possibly more pathogenic feature of those subtypes than HCV-2a. In patients on maintenance hemodialysis, HCV-1a and -1b (each 31%) were among the most common subtypes, and in contrast to the case with blood donors, HCV-1a, -1b, and -1d were found in those with normal ALT as well as those with elevated ALT levels. Impaired immune responses of hemodialyzed patients might be responsible for the apparently decreased hepatocytic injury caused by infection with HCV type 1. In patients with HCC, HCV-1b (57%) was the most common; this was followed by HCV-1d (19%) and HCV-2a (5%). Subtype prevalence was not different between HCC patients with advanced liver cirrhosis and those without advanced cirrhosis.

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