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AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1996 Feb;17(2):271-9.

Laboratory simulations and training in endovascular embolotherapy with a swine arteriovenous malformation model.

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Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.


We assessed the suitability of a swine experimental arteriovenous malformation model for laboratory simulations and training in endovascular embolotherapy. Embolizations with liquid glue or particles were performed in 10 animals. The parameters of injection (microcatheter position, concentration and volume of embolic agent, injection rate) were deliberately varied to simulate results that may be observed in clinical practice. A range of successful and less desirable therapeutic outcomes or complications was simulated. In one model, intravascular mean blood pressure in the "terminal feeder" rose after "nidus" embolization, consistent with observations in feeders of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Experience in the technical aspects of embolotherapy was gained by repeated performances using this model. Simplicity of creation, clear angiographic visibility of feeders, a nidus and a draining vein, and hemodynamic similarities with cerebral arteriovenous malformations make this an attractive in vivo experimental model for learning the principles of embolotherapy, testing new embolic agents, and training/gaining experience in embolization techniques.

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