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Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1996 Apr;46(2):542-9.

Phylogenetic relationships among members of the ascomycetous yeast genera Brettanomyces, Debaryomyces, Dekkera, and Kluyveromyces deduced by small-subunit rRNA gene sequences.

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BBSRC Institute of Food Research, Reading Laboratory, United Kingdom.


A molecular systematic investigation of members of the ascomycetous yeast genera Brettanomyces, Debaryomyces, Dekkera, and Kluyveromyces was performed by using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Our comparative sequence analysis revealed that Brettanomyces anomalus and Brettanomyces bruxellensis were closely related to one another and also to their teleomorphs, Dekkera anomala and Dekkera bruxellensis, respectively. Together with Dekkera custersiana and Dekkera naardenensis, these four species formed a stable and distinct phylogenetic group. The three representative species of the genus Debaryomyces examined (viz., Debaryomyces castellii, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Debaryomyces udenii) were found to be genealogically highly related to each other and exhibited a specific phylogenetic affinity (level of sequence similarity, approximately 99.2%) with Candida guilliermondii (teleomorph, Pichia guilliermondii). Debaryomyces species and C. guilliermondii formed a distinct phylogenetic group, which displayed a significant association with a phylogenetically coherent cluster encompassing Lodderomyces elongisporus, Candida albicans, and four other Candida species. In contrast to the situation with the genera Brettanomyces and Debaryomyces, the genus Kluyveromyces displayed very marked phylogenetic heterogeneity. Kluyveromyces polysporus, the type species of the genus Kluyveromyces, and six other Kluyveromyces species (viz., Kluyveromyces africanus, Kluyveromyces delphensis, Kluyveromyces lodderae, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Kluyveromyces waltii, and Kluyveromyces yarrowii) were phylogenetically intermixed with species of the genera Zygosaccharomyces, Saccharomyces, and Torulaspora. In contrast, Kluyveromyces aestuarii, Kluyveromyces dobzhanskii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Kluyveromyces wickerhamii, and three Kluyveromyces marxianus varieties, along with their anamorph, Candida kefyr, formed a highly stable monophyletic group worthy of separate generic status. Kluyveromyces blattae and Kluyveromyces phaffii formed two distinct phylogenetic lines that did not exhibit particularly close affinity with each other or other ascomycetous yeast genera. Our phylogenetic findings are discussed in the context of the results of other genotypic and phenotypic studies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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