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Biometrics. 1996 Mar;52(1):98-111.

Pattern-mixture models for multivariate incomplete data with covariates.

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Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109, USA.


Pattern-mixture models stratify incomplete data by the pattern of missing values and formulate distinct models within each stratum. Pattern-mixture models are developed for analyzing a random sample on continuous variables y(1), y(2) when values of y(2) are nonrandomly missing. Methods for scalar y(1) and y(2) are here generalized to vector y(1) and y(2) with additional fixed covariates x. Parameters in these models are identified by alternative assumptions about the missing-data mechanism. Models may be underidentified (in which case additional assumptions are needed), just-identified, or overidentified. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods are developed for the latter two situations, using the EM and SEM algorithms, direct and interactive simulation methods. The methods are illustrated on a data set involving alternative dosage regimens for the treatment of schizophrenia using haloperidol and on a regression example. Sensitivity to alternative assumptions about the missing-data mechanism is assessed, and the new methods are compared with complete-case analysis and maximum likelihood for a probit selection model.

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