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J Addict Dis. 1995;14(4):1-20.

Paths and impacts in the progressive independence model: a homelessness and substance abuse intervention in Chicago.

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The University of Chicago, Illinois, USA.


In an attempt to reduce homelessness and substance abuse, Chicago graduates of short-term inpatient substance abuse programs who lacked domiciles were placed into one of three conditions: (1) a case management only intervention (n = 96), (2) a case management with supported housing intervention (n = 136), or (3) a control condition (n = 187) that allowed access to normal aftercare in the community. The two treatment interventions used a "progressive independence" approach, which focuses on simultaneously ameliorating tangible needs and clinical problems. Multivariate analyses suggest that subjects in both treatment interventions experienced lower levels of substance abuse and higher levels of residential stability than subjects in the control condition, as measured over the course of a year. Further analysis suggests that retention was improved by the focus on immediate tangible resources, substance abuse was reduced by both the support of outpatient substance abuse treatment and the promulgation of changes in coping styles, and residential stability was increased by both the focus on access to income maintenance benefits and help with location of housing.

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