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Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1996 Nov;22(4):675-94.

Systemic sclerosis. A vascular perspective.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston 29425, USA.


The horizon is bright for SSc in a vascular context. Surrogate markers can now be routinely used in the management of the active patient; new cytokines, such as VEGF, can be studied along with the known abnormalities of the cytokine cascade (TGF beta 1, PDGF) for a more integrated understanding of the vascular pathogenesis of SSc (Fig. 6); and combination therapies can be applied before vascular insufficiency leads to vital organ failure. Thus, despite reimbursement and research funding constraints, the future for both the SSc patient and the investigator of SSc is optimistic when based on a firm biologic foundation.

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