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Indian J Ophthalmol. 1996 Jun;44(2):103-12.

Practical approach to diagnosis of strabismus.

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Schell Eye Hospital, Christian Medical College, Vellore, TamilNadu.


Jampolsky's approach to the diagnosis of strabismus is simple. Certain tests are to be performed in sequence to determine 1) the presence of fusion in the habitual head position under normal viewing conditions and in the primary position at near and distance; 2) the presence and characteristics of fusion vergences and 3) the deviations that exist at distance and near. These are established by the cover tests and the prism cover test. 4) Incomitance of the strabismus, A-V phenomena and mechanical weaknesses and restrictions are assessed by observations of eye movements and the forceps tests. Finally, 5) inferences about the state of the sensory system are made based on the history, vision and clinical examination. Additional tests performed on indication are the 4 diopter prism test, the prism adaptation test and the forceps muscle tests. This approach allows an accurate and reproducible examination to be performed in an objective manner making it possible to compare clinical findings over time and allow a rational plan of management to be evolved. Errors in examination arise from poor control of three factors, accommodation, fixation and fusion vergence. These can be controlled by careful attention to the test conditions. This system of diagnosis is simple to follow and understand, economic on time and altogether less of a strain to examiner (and patient) than the traditional system.

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