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Am J Cardiol. 1996 Nov 1;78(9):996-1001.

Influence of gender, race, and education on patient preferences and receipt of cardiac catheterizations among coronary care unit patients.

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Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Moryland, USA.


The extent to which a preference for less aggressive care explains the lower rate of invasive cardiac services for women and African-Americans is unknown. A prospective observational study of 272 patients admitted to the coronary care unit was conducted at a tertiary referral teaching hospital and a community teaching hospital. In stepwise multivariate analysis, having less than a college education, poor cardiac function, not having undergone a previous cardiac catheterization, being a patient in a nonreferral community hospital, and current smoking were positively associated with a patient's stating that he or she would disagree with a physician's recommendation for a cardiac catheterization. The step-wise multivariate model with cardiac catheterization as the dependent variable indicated that being a patient in a referral medical center, patient willingness to accept a physician's recommendation for a cardiac catheterization, severe heart disease, and having attended high school were predictive. Women did not differ from men in their preference for or receipt of cardiac catheterization. Patients in the coronary care unit with lower levels of education were less likely to undergo cardiac catheterization. This association was only partly explained by less educated patients' being less willing to accept a physician's recommendation to undergo cardiac catheterization.

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