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J Periodontol. 1996 Oct;67(10):1025-33.

Clinical and histologic observations of sites implanted with intraoral autologous bone grafts or allografts. 15 human case reports.

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University of Southern California School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, USA.


The cases reported in this paper were treated at 7 different clinical centers and present clinical and histologic observations from 15 patients and 21 human biopsies. The biopsies were taken from extraction sockets or dental implant sites which were grafted with either autologous intra-oral bone (6 sites), demineralized freeze-dried bone (DFDBA) (7 sites), or mineralized freeze-dried bone (MFDBA) (7 sites), or a combination of autologous bone, DFDBA and a barrier membrane (1 site). Six sites were grafted with DFDBA and augmented with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) barrier membranes. Biopsies for histological evaluation were taken 4 to 13 months after implantation. A bone scoring system of 0 to 4 was used to evaluate the sections for dead implanted particles or the presence of vital bone. A bone score of 3 indicated the presence of dead implant material, blood vessels, islands of cartilage, osteoblasts, and new bone formation. A score of 4 indicated total replacement of the implanted material by the host bone. The average bone score for sites which received autologous bone was 2.33; for DFDBA sites, 0.98; and MFDBA was 0.18. The over-riding histologic characteristic of sites implanted with DFDBA or MFDBA was retention of non-vital graft particles within fibrous connective tissue. Biopsies taken adjacent to the host bed demonstrated incorporation of the allografts (osteoconduction). Sites grafted with autologous bone chips also demonstrated non-vital bone chips surrounded by vital host bone (osteoconduction). Sites which received barrier membranes did not appear to improve or impair bone healing of the augmented sites. Autologous bone chips harvested from within the oral cavity as well as allografts may serve as biologic fillers, but do not apparently contribute to osteoinduction. Autologous bone will eventually be resorbed and replaced by the host. DFDBA and MFDBA are resorbed very slowly and apparently do not contribute to osteoinduction. Allografts apparently are not resorbed by osteoclasts and therefore their continued use around dental implants is questioned.

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