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Clin Infect Dis. 1996 Oct;23(4):760-6.

Nosocomial infections with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in liver transplant recipients: risk factors for acquisition and mortality.

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Division of Infectious Diseases, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.


The risk factors for acquisition of and mortality due to nosocomial infection with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) recipients were studied at a tertiary care hospital; 32 VREF-infected OLT patients (cases) were compared with 33 randomly selected OLT recipients (controls). More antibiotics were administered preoperatively to cases (mean, 4 antibiotics per patient for 474 antibiotic-days) than to controls (mean, 1.8 antibiotics per patient for 131 antibiotic-days). Cases were more likely than controls to have received vancomycin therapy preoperatively and to have been hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) preoperatively. Logistic regression revealed that the risk factors for acquisition of VREF infection were surgical reexploration and a prolonged stay in the surgical ICU postoperatively. In the cases, the risk factors for mortality were admission to the ICU preoperatively and hemodialysis. The mortality rate associated with polymicrobial bloodstream infections was 100% despite appropriate therapy. Sixteen and 18 cases received parenteral chloramphenicol and doxycycline, respectively, for treatment of VREF infection. There were no hematologic adverse effects attributed to chloramphenicol treatment. DNA analysis of selected E. faecium isolates suggested that infections were due to multiple clones. In summary, the source of VREF infection in OLT patients is the gastrointestinal tract. Antibiotic selective pressure may contribute to colonization. Infection with VREF is a predictor of morbidity and mortality in OLT patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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