Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Pathol. 1996 Nov;149(5):1745-62.

Correlation between enhanced vascular permeability, up-regulation of cellular adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion to the endothelium in the retina during the development of fatal murine cerebral malaria.

Author information

Department of Pathology, University of Sydney, Australia.


The relationships between increased vascular permeability to protein, monocyte adherence to the endothelium, and expression of the cell adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the central nervous system microvasculature were studied during the progression of fatal murine cerebral malaria. CBA mice were inoculated with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, and changes in the retinal microvasculature were examined on days 3, 5, and 7 postinoculation (p.i.). Evans blue dye and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were administered intravenously to assess vascular permeability to macromolecules macroscopically and by light and electron microscopy. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression were examined by immunohistochemistry. HRP leakage into the retinal parenchyma was seen macroscopically at a low level on day 3 p.i., increasing progressively at day 5 (the earliest time at which cerebral symptoms were observed) and day 7 (the day on which animals showed severe behavioral abnormalities and died). The inner retinal vascular plexus showed a slight increase in vascular permeability to intravenous Evans blue at day 3 p.i. and congestion, monocyte adherence to the endothelium, and increased vascular permeability to both Evans blue and HRP at day 7 p.i. Electron microscopic observations were consistent with these findings and also revealed disrupted light junctions and the coating of monocytes and endothelium with HRP at day 7 p.i. Immunohistochemical staining and densitometry showed a progressive increase from day 3 to day 7 p.i. in the densities of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on the venular endothelium of the inner retinal vascular plexus, with the appearance of adherent ICAM-1+ monocytes at the terminal stage of the disease. None of the pathological changes associated with the inner retinal plexus were seen at any stage in the outer retinal plexus. These results suggest the following sequence of events in the inner retinal vessels, particularly the venules, during the progression of fatal murine cerebral malaria: 1) a mild increase in vascular permeability at approximately day 3 p.i., 2) a progressive increase in endothelial expression of the cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, commencing at approximately day 3 p.i., 3) monocyte adhesion to the endothelium starting at approximately day 5 p.i., and 4) frank disruption of endothelial integrity at the terminal stage (day 7 p.i.), leading to edema and hemorrhage. Similar changes in cerebral vessels may underlie the neurological complications of the disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center