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J Consult Clin Psychol. 1996 Feb;64(1):153-61.

Effects of behavioral and pharmacological treatment on smokeless tobacco users.

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Department of Psychiatry, Tobacco Research Program, University of Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.


The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 mg of nicotine polacrilex versus placebo gum and of group behavioral treatment versus minimal contact on cessation of smokeless tobacco use. Participants (N = 210) were randomly assigned 1 of the 4 treatment conditions. Withdrawal symptoms were assessed throughout the treatment. Follow-up assessments were made at 1, 6, and 12 months posttreatment. Survival curve analysis showed that any of the 3 treatment groups involving group behavioral therapy or placebo gum were equally effective and superior to the minimal contact plus 2 mg of nicotine gum treatment in terms of abstinence. On the other hand, withdrawal symptoms were significantly reduced by nicotine gum, compared with placebo during the initial phases of cessation. The ineffectiveness of nicotine gum on treatment outcome may be attributed to its similarity with smokeless tobacco.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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