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J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Nov;96(11):1150-5.

Women gain weight 1 year after smoking cessation while dietary intake temporarily increases.

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1
Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California, Division of Research, Oakland 94611, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the relationship of dietary change to weight change in women who quit smoking and remained abstinent for 1 year.

METHODS:

For 1 year, 582 women participating in smoking cessation classes were studied. Weight, diet, and physical activity were measured at baseline and at 1, 6, and 12 months after smoking cessation. Multivariate regression models were used to predict 1-year weight change for the 139 women who remained abstinent.

RESULTS:

Women gained, on average, 9.9 lb over a 1-year period while increasing their intake of energy for 1 and 6 months but returning to baseline levels by 1 year. Sucrose, total carbohydrate, and fat intake increased significantly for the first month; fat and total carbohydrate intake remained at an increased level for 6 months. In unadjusted analyses, older women and those who smoked more cigarettes gained more weight than younger women and lighter smokers; lighter and heavier women gained more weight than women of intermediate weight. In adjusted analyses, age remained a significant factor and number of cigarettes remained of borderline significance. Change in energy intake was predictive of weight change only in women with the highest energy intake at baseline.

APPLICATIONS:

Dietitians should acknowledge that most women who quit smoking gain weight in the short term. Although many women increase their energy intake, change in energy level is only one factor in weight change. Over the long term, women with high baseline intakes appear to be able to affect their weight change by reducing their energy intake.

PMID:
8906140
DOI:
10.1016/S0002-8223(96)00296-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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