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J Bone Miner Res. 1996 Oct;11(10):1474-81.

Colony stimulating factor-1 plays a role in osteoclast formation and function in bone resorption induced by parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein.

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Section of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.


Although colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) plays a key role in osteoclast recruitment, studies examining the effect of CSF-1 on mature osteoclasts indicate that it may directly inhibit bone resorption by isolated rat osteoclasts. To define further CSF-1's role in bone remodeling, we examined the effect of neutralizing antisera to CSF-1 on basal and parathyroid hormone (PTH)-induced bone resorption using two organ culture assays designed to examine the recruitment of osteoclast precursors and the activation of mature osteoclasts, respectively. We first assessed whether PTH increases CSF-1 production from bone in organ culture by examining conditioned medium from 19-day-old fetal rat long bones in a mitogenesis assay employing a CSF-1-responsive cell line, CRX-1. Conditioned medium from untreated bones induced a titratable increase in CRX-1 cell proliferation, and treatment of bones with PTH for 72 h caused a significant increase in mitogenic activity. CSF-1 antiserum caused a significant decrease in mitogenic activity in conditioned medium, indicating that bone in organ culture produces CSF-1 constitutively and in response to PTH. To examine bone-derived CSF-1's role in bone resorption, we examined the effect of neutralizing antisera to CSF-1 on basal and PTH-induced bone resorption in the fetal rat long bone assay, which reflects activation of mature osteoclasts. Anti-CSF-1 caused a significant increase in unstimulated and PTH-induced bone resorption compared with control. By contrast, in the fetal mouse metacarpal assay, which examines proliferation and recruitment of osteoclast progenitors and precursors, anti-CSF-1 caused significant inhibition of PTH related protein (PTHrP)-induced bone resorption after 3 and 6 days of incubation. Consistent with these findings, histological examination of cultured 17-day-old fetal metacarpals demonstrated that anti-CSF-1 inhibits the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts in PTHrP-treated explants, whereas it has no effect on unstimulated bones. We conclude that bone-derived CSF-1 may have a dual role in PTH/PTHrP-induced bone resorption by enhancing the appearance of osteoclast precursors while restraining the resorptive function of mature osteoclasts.

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