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Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1996 Aug;30(4):516-22.

Outcome of schizophrenia: the Madras longitudinal study.

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  • 1Schizophrenia Research Foundation, East Anna Nagar, Madras, India.



The aim of the study was to determine the clinical outcome in a group of first-episode schizophrenic patients on a 10-year follow-up. The social, demographic and clinical variables associated with poor outcome and gender differences in outcome were other issues addressed.


Ninety patients fulfilling Feighner's and ICD-9 criteria for schizophrenia, at Madras, India, were included for a 10-year follow-up. The Present State Examination and the Psychiatric and Personal schedule were administered at intake and at the end of every year. Clinical outcome was considered as a combination of the pattern of course and the presence of positive symptoms during year 10.


After 10 years, 76 of the 90 patients included were followed up, giving a follow-up rate of 84%. The clinical outcome was good in nearly 75% of the patients with almost all symptoms showing a steep decline at the end of 10 years. Fifty-nine subjects were asymptomatic at the end of the follow-up period and 12 were ill during the entire 10th year. Sexual, religious and grandiose delusions and flat affect at inclusion predicted a poor clinical outcome. More males had a poor outcome and spent a longer time in a psychotic state.


There is evidence of a good outcome in the majority of first-episode schizophrenic patients after 10 years in keeping with other reports from developing countries. Certain variables at inclusion predicted a poor clinical outcome and males had a poorer outcome than females.

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