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Nature. 1996 Oct 24;383(6602):691-6.

A transcriptional partner for MAD proteins in TGF-beta signalling.

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Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

Erratum in

  • Nature 1996 Dec 19-26;384(6610):648.


The transforming-growth-factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily is critical for establishing mesoderm during early embryogenesis in Xenopus. The transcriptional activation of Mix.2, an immediate-early response gene specific to activin-like members of the TGF-beta superfamily, is associated with the rapid appearance of a site-specific DNA-binding activity that recognizes a fifty-base-pair regulatory element known as ARE in the Mix.2 promoter. Cloning of the site-specific DNA-binding component of this activity revealed it to be a new winged-helix transcription factor and a direct target for signalling by the TGF-beta superfamily. XMAD2, a recently identified TGF-beta signal transducer, forms a complex with the transcription factor in an activin-dependent fashion to generate an activated ARE-binding complex. A model is proposed to explain how TGF-beta superfamily signals might regulate the expression of specific genes in the early embryo.

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