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AIDS. 1996 Sep;10(10):1121-6.

The association between cigarette smoking and selected HIV-related medical conditions.

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Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.



To clarify the effect of cigarette smoking on the development of conditions associated with HIV infection.


Prospective and retrospective cohort study, with interview and examination twice a year since 1988.


Data on 516 HIV-infected men from cohorts of homosexual and bisexual men in San Francisco, Denver and Chicago, who were repeatedly interviewed and examined between 1988 and 1992, were analysed. After excluding men who did not have well-defined dates of seroconversion and those who were classified as ex- or intermittent smokers, 232 men remained for analysis: 106 were smokers and 126 were non-smokers. Univariate and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed to assess the relationship between cigarette smoking and loss of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, diagnosis of any AIDS-defining illness, and specific diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, and community-acquired pneumonia.


By univariate analyses, cigarette smoking was not associated with clinical AIDS, loss of CD4+ cells, Kaposi's sarcoma or PCP, but was significantly associated with oral candidiasis [relative risk (RR), 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.70], hairy leukoplakia (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.15-1.99), and community-acquired pneumonia (RR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.30-5.27). Dose-response effect was also evident for these three conditions (all P < 0.01). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated no association between cigarette smoking and time of progression to clinical AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), or PCP (P = 0.62, 0.54 and 0.11, respectively) but showed that cigarette smokers developed oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, and pneumonia more quickly than non-smokers (P = 0.031, 0.006 and 0.009, respectively).


Cigarette smoking was not associated with an increased likelihood or rate of developing KS, PCP or AIDS, but was associated with developing community-acquired pneumonia, oral candidiasis, and hairy leukoplakia in these HIV-infected men.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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