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J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1996 Oct;55(10):1060-72.

Distribution of immunoglobulin superfamily members ICAM-1, -2, -3, and the beta 2 integrin LFA-1 in multiple sclerosis lesions.

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Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44195, USA.


To identify potential molecular substrates for leukocyte trafficking and activation in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain, we determined the immunocytochemical distribution of the beta, integrin lymphocyte-function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) and its major ligands, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, ICAM-2, and ICAM-3 in MS tissue. Colocalization of these adhesion molecules with lineage-specific markers was analyzed by dual-labeling immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 were detected on endothelial cells, and ICAM-3 immunoreactivity was restricted to infiltrating leukocytes. In control brain, 10% of glucose transporter-1 positive vessels contained ICAM-1 immunoreactivity on their luminal surface and 21% were ICAM-2-positive. A significant increase in ICAM-1-positive vessels was found in MS brains. This increase was greater in MS lesions (81% of vessels) than in nonlesion areas (37% of vessels). A significant increase in ICAM-1-positive vessels was found in encephalitis (55% of vessels) but not in Parkinson's (17% of vessels) brains. The percentage of vessels expressing ICAM-2 was not increased in MS, encephalitis, or Parkinson's brains. Both ICAM-3 and LFA-1 were detected on the vast majority of infiltrating lymphocytes and monocytes in and near MS lesions, and these cells were often closely apposed to each other. In addition, LFA-1 was detected on activated microglia located close to the edge of demyelinating lesions. ICAM-3-positive leukocytes were often closely apposed to LFA-1-positive microglia. These results suggest a role for ICAM-1, -2, and LFA-1 in the transendothelial migration of leukocytes into MS brain and a role for ICAM 3/LFA-1 interactions in the activation of lymphocytes, monocytes, and microglia in MS lesions.

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