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Cardiol Clin. 1996 Aug;14(3):393-404.

Indications for and timing of surgical intervention in infective endocarditis.

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Cardiac Non-Invasive Laboratory, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas, USA.


Infective endocarditis, especially when it involves prosthetic valves, is a serious, often fatal illness. Although antibiotics are essential in management, surgery is required in many patients who develop even incipient heart failure and structural complications. Early identification and referral results in improved mortality and morbidity rates, and there is evidence that surgery should play a larger role in managing infective endocarditis. Patients with intracardiac pacemakers and cardioverting devices represent a growing reservoir of patients with the potential to develop endocarditis.

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